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The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority.
In 1655, a Dutch military campaign led by New Netherland Director-General Peter Stuyvesant took control of the Swedish colony, ending its claim to independence.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, and the Siege of Fort Mifflin. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub.
Philadelphia remained the nation's largest city until being overtaken by New York City in 1790; the city was also one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, serving as temporary U. Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies.
As a Quaker, Penn had experienced religious persecution and wanted his colony to be a place where anyone could worship freely.
This tolerance, far more than afforded by most other colonies, led to better relations with the local native tribes and fostered Philadelphia's rapid growth into America's most important city.
Though poor at first, the city became an important trading center with tolerable living conditions by the 1750s.
Philadelphia served as the temporary capital of the United States while the new capital was under construction in the District of Columbia from 1790 to 1800. The free black community also established many schools for its children, with the help of Quakers.
The Swedish and Finnish settlers continued to have their own militia, religion, and court, and to enjoy substantial autonomy under the Dutch.
The English conquered the New Netherland colony in 1664, though the situation did not change substantially until 1682 when the area was included in William Penn's charter for Pennsylvania.
The city's inhabitants did not follow Penn's plans, however, as they crowded by the Delaware River port, and subdivided and resold their lots.
Before Penn left Philadelphia for the last time, he issued the Charter of 1701 establishing it as a city.